Coffee - Production and -manufacturing
The coffee - tree
The coffee -"tree" is a variation of a tropical evergreen shrub. There are three kinds of coffee "tree", whereby all three African source are:
Arabica originates from Ethiopia and is best suited for larger amounts of 600m to 2200m. Liberica, which comes from the western Africa, and Robusta, which originates from the Congo, grow the best under 600m. Liberica and Robusta grow well in wooden surrounding and require fewer care than Arabicas. Liberica and Robusta trees produce of course quantitatively higher profits, but the coffee of these plants has sooner a harsh taste and their caffeine - content can up to 50% higher be in comparison with Arabica. The mostselled coffee at the supermarket usually is the less expensive Liberica and Robusta. Epicures prefer on the contrary almost exclusively on the more expensive Arabica.
The best flourishes coffee at temperatures between 25 and 35 celsius in an amount according to the sort of coffee to 2200m (Liberica and Robusta at amounts under 600m and Arabica between 600 and 2200m sea level). As ideal climatic conditions can be called an exchange between amply rains and sunshine, so come the berries (coffeebeans) to full maturity. The condition of the underground plays no large role, however is a good drainage advantageous.
The coffee - beans do not ripen all at the same time. Normally blossoms increase first and after that berries, which different stadium of maturity run through, so harvest of coffee is not an easy job to do. Only ripe berries can be harvested. If the branches are with berries too long, spoil the beans. If the beans are however still green, can not be harvested them/it/her likewise and the pickers must come later again. For High-quality-coffee the pickers must return therefore repeatedly to a tree. Each tree carries per year approximately one kilogram beans. Planting coffee is very labor-intensive therefore.
Producers of less expensive coffee began with streamlines at the harvest of coffee. The harvested coffee has not matured a harsh spice and does not have a 'full' taste. For example some producers in Brazil utilize a method, which harvests the whole branch of the tree inclusively leaves, blossoms, green and overripe berries. This procedure is very injurious for the trees and the regeneration lasts some years. An other less injurious method is applied in Africa, namely the shaking of the trees. The ready berries fall to the ground, the others remain on the tree.
After six years the coffee - tree carries useful berries. This for ten years. coffee - trees become 5m to 13m high, on plantations are them/it/her however only 2m high, since with it the best quality is to be achieved at beans and is also simple the crop.
Since there is only three main - kinds of coffee - tree, the question intrudes, why there is so many different sorts of beans, which are offered for sale? The raeson is the diversity of climates, amounts, floors and rains, where coffee grows. Coffee - trees only grow in tropical and subtropical areas, and these areas around the globe have very big climatic differences. In the highlands of Central America cool temperatures rule with wind and mist. Differently in the hot, steaming lowland - jungles of Africa and in the changeable weathers of the Caribbean. All these areas yield beans with individual and for the growing area typical characteristics.
Processing of the harvested beans
The processing results after a damp or dry process. At the damp method, the beans go for up to three days in so-called fermentation - tank. This "washed" coffee has characteristically higher acidity and sharper taste than dryly processed beans. At the dry method the berries are dried at the sun and hulls after that. These beans display usually fewer acidity. The taste is full-bodied and the aroma more round than which through the damp method processed beans.
The availability of amply pure, fresh water often decides, which processing - method coffee-producers utilize. In Central - and South America is prevailing the damp method, in the eastern Africa and Yemen the dry method. Even though the damp method produces better results - more taste, consistent bean, constant and prognostizierbare quality -, are manufactured some excellent coffees with the dry method.
After that the coffee is appraised manually, sorted out and categorized.
Coffee is produced and exported from a large number from countries. Each country has it's own system for the classification, so there are more than one hundred sorts of coffee. But there are some reason - groups and classifications. The three basic groupsof coffees are:
Further exist still many further classifications underneath this one, which go back e.g. on the type of plant (Excelsa, Bourbon, Maragogype) or the manufacturing method (wet or dryly) or the plant (Arabica, Liberica, Robusta).